Pakistan Maritime Security Agency
Operations Room / MRCC
Tel : +92-21-99214624
Fax : +92-21-99214625
Email : hqmsa@cyber.net.pk
  : mrccpmsa@cyber.net.pk
INTERNATIONAL LAW OF SEA

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982


CONTENTS

PREAMBLE

 

PART I. INTRODUCTION

  • Article 1. Use of terms and scope

PART II. TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

  • Article 2. Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

  • Article 3. Breadth of the territorial sea
  • Article 4. Outer limit of the territorial sea
  • Article 5. Normal baseline
  • Article 6. Reefs
  • Article 7. Straight baselines
  • Article 8. Internal waters
  • Article 9. Mouths of rivers
  • Article 10. Bays
  • Article 11. Ports
  • Article 12. Roadsteads
  • Article 13. Low-tide elevations
  • Article 14. Combination of methods for determining baselines
  • Article 15. Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
  • Article 16. Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

·         Article 17. Right of innocent passage

·         Article 18. Meaning of passage

·         Article 19. Meaning of innocent passage

·         Article 20. Submarines and other underwater vehicles

·         Article 21. Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage

·         Article 22. Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in the territorial sea

·         Article 23. Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

·         Article 24. Duties of the coastal State

·         Article 25. Rights of protection of the coastal State

·         Article 26. Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

SUBSECTION B. RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

·         Article 27. Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

·         Article 28. Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

SUBSECTION C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

·         Article 29. Definition of warships

·         Article 30. Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State

·         Article 31. Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes

·         Article 32. Immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes

 

SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

·         Article 33. Contiguous zone

 

PART III. STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·  Article 34. Legal status of waters forming straits used for international navigation

·  Article 35. Scope of this Part

·  Article 36. High seas routes or routes through exclusive economic zones through straits used for international navigation

SECTION 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

  • Article 37. Scope of this section
  • Article 38. Right of transit passage
  • Article 39. Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage
  • Article 40. Research and survey activities
  • Article 41. Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in straits used for international navigation
  • Article 42. Laws and regulations of States bordering straits relating to transit passage
  • Article 43. Navigational and safety aids and other improvements and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution
  • Article 44. Duties of States bordering straits

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

·  Article 45. Innocent passage

 

PART IV. ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

 

  • Article 46. Use of terms
  • Article 47. Archipelagic baselines
  • Article 48. Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf
  • Article 49. Legal status of archipelagic waters, of the air space over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil
  • Article 50. Delimitation of internal waters
  • Article 51. Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and existing submarine cables
  • Article 52. Right of innocent passage
  • Article 53. Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage
  • Article 54. Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage, research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to archipelagic sea lanes passage

 

PART V. EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

 

  • Article 55. Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 56. Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 57. Breadth of the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 58. Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 59. Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 60. Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone
  • Article 61. Conservation of the living resources
  • Article 62. Utilization of the living resources
  • Article 63. Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it
  • Article 64. Highly migratory species
  • Article 65. Marine mammals
  • Article 66. Anadromous stocks
  • Article 67. Catadromous species
  • Article 68. Sedentary species
  • Article 69. Right of land-locked States
  • Article 70. Right of geographically disadvantaged States
  • Article 71. Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70
  • Article 72. Restrictions on transfer of rights
  • Article 73. Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State
  • Article 74. Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
  • Article 75. Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

 

PART VI. CONTINENTAL SHELF

 

  • Article 76. Definition of the continental shelf
  • Article 77. Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf.
  • Article 78. Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space and the rights and freedoms of other States
  • Article 79. Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf
  • Article 80. Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf
  • Article 81. Drilling on the continental shelf
  • Article 82. Payments and contributions with respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles
  • Article 83. Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
  • Article 84. Charts and lists of geographical coordinates
  • Article 85. Tunnelling

 

PART VII. HIGH SEAS

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

  • Article 86. Application of the provisions of this Part
  • Article 87. Freedom of the high seas
  • Article 88. Reservation of the high seas for peaceful
  • purposes
  • Article 89. Invalidity of claims of sovereignty over the high seas
  • Article 90. Right of navigation
  • Article 91. Nationality of ships
  • Article 92. Status of ships
  • Article 93. Ships flying the flag of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Article 94. Duties of the flag State
  • Article 95. Immunity of warships on the high seas
  • Article 96. Immunity of ships used only on government non-commercial service
  • Article 97. Penal jurisdiction in matters of collision or any other incident of navigation
  • Article 98. Duty to render assistance
  • Article 99. Prohibition of the transport of slaves
  • Article 100. Duty to cooperate in the repression of piracy
  • Article 101. Definition of piracy
  • Article 102. Piracy by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied
  • Article 103. Definition of a pirate ship or aircraft
  • Article 104. Retention or loss of the nationality of a pirate ship or aircraft
  • Article 105. Seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft
  • Article 106. Liability for seizure without adequate grounds
  • Article 107. Ships and aircraft which are entitled to seize on account of piracy
  • Article 108. Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances
  • Article 109. Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas
  • Article 110. Right of visit
  • Article 111. Right of hot pursuit
  • Article 112. Right to lay submarine cables and pipelines
  • Article 113. Breaking or injury of a submarine cable or pipeline
  • Article 114. Breaking or injury by owners of a submarine cable or pipeline of another submarine cable or pipeline
  • Article 115. Indemnity for loss incurred in avoiding injury to a submarine cable or pipeline

SECTION 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS

  • Article 116. Right to fish on the high seas
  • Article 117. Duty of States to adopt with respect to their nationals measures for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas
  • Article 118. Cooperation of States in the conservation and management of living resources
  • Article 119. Conservation of the living resources of the high seas
  • Article 120. Marine mammals

 

PART VIII. REGIME OF ISLANDS

 

  • Article 121. Regime of islands

 

PART IX. ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS

 

  • Article 122. Definition
  • Article 123. Cooperation of States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas

 

PART X. RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT

 

  • Article 124. Use of terms
  • Article 125. Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit
  • Article 126. Exclusion of application of the most-favoured-nation clause
  • Article 127. Customs duties, taxes and other charges
  • Article 128. Free zones and other customs facilities
  • Article 129. Cooperation in the construction and improvement of means of transport
  • Article 130. Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit
  • Article 131. Equal treatment in maritime ports
  • Article 132. Grant of greater transit facilities

 

PART XI. THE AREA

 

SECTION l. GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

  • Article 133. Use of terms
  • Article 134. Scope of this Part
  • Article 135. Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space

 

SECTION 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA

 

·  Article 136. Common heritage of mankind

·  Article 137. Legal status of the Area and its resources

·  Article 138. General conduct of States in relation to the Area

·  Article 139. Responsibility to ensure compliance and liability for damage

·  Article 140. Benefit of mankind

·  Article 141. Use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes

·  Article 142. Rights and legitimate interests of coastal States

·  Article 143. Marine scientific research

·  Article 144. Transfer of technology

·  Article 145. Protection of the marine environment

·  Article 146. Protection of human life

·  Article 147. Accommodation of activities in the Area and in the marine environment

·  Article 148. Participation of developing States in activities in the Area

·  Article 149. Archaeological and historical objects

SECTION 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA

 

·  Article 150. Policies relating to activities in the Area

·  Article 151. Production policies

·  Article 152. Exercise of powers and functions by the Authority

·  Article 153. System of exploration and exploitation

·  Article 154. Periodic review

·  Article 155. The Review Conference

SECTION 4. THE AUTHORITY

 

SUBSECTION A. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·         Article 156. Establishment of the Authority

·         Article 157. Nature and fundamental principles of the Authority

·         Article 158. Organs of the Authority

SUBSECTION B. THE ASSEMBLY

·         Article 159. Composition, procedure and voting

·         Article 160. Powers and functions

SUBSECTION C. THE COUNCIL

·         Article 161. Composition, procedure and voting

·         Article 162. Powers and functions

·         Article 163. Organs of the Council

·         Article 164. The Economic Planning Commission

·         Article 165. The Legal and Technical Commission

SUBSECTION D. THE SECRETARIAT

·         Article 166. The Secretariat

·         Article 167. The staff of the Authority

·         Article 168. International character of the Secretariat

·         Article 169. Consultation and cooperation with international and non-governmental organizations

SUBSECTION E. THE ENTERPRISE

·         Article 170. The Enterprise

SUBSECTION F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY

·         Article 171. Funds of the Authority

·         Article 172. Annual budget of the Authority

·         Article 173. Expenses of the Authority

·         Article 174. Borrowing power of the Authority

·         Article 175. Annual audit

SUBSECTION G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

·         Article 176. Legal status

·         Article 177. Privileges and immunities

·         Article 178. Immunity from legal process

·         Article 179. Immunity from search and any form of seizure

·         Article 180. Exemption from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria

·         Article 181. Archives and official communications of the Authority

·         Article 182. Privileges and immunities of certain persons connected with the Authority

·         Article 183. Exemption from taxes and customs duties

SUBSECTION H. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS

·         Article 184. Suspension of the exercise of voting rights

·         Article 185. Suspension of exercise of rights and privileges of membership

 

SECTION 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS

 

  • Article 186. Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
  • Article 187. Jurisdiction of the Seabed Disputes Chamber
  • Article 188. Submission of disputes to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or an ad hoc chamber of the Seabed Disputes Chamber or to binding commercial arbitration
  • Article 189. Limitation on jurisdiction with regard to decisions of the Authority
  • Article 190. Participation and appearance of sponsoring States Parties in proceedings
  • Article 191. Advisory opinions

 

PART XII. PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·  Article 192. General obligation

·  Article 193. Sovereign right of States to exploit their natural resources

·  Article 194. Measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment

·  Article 195. Duty not to transfer damage or hazards or transform one type of pollution into another

·  Article 196. Use of technologies or introduction of alien or new species

SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION

  • Article 197. Cooperation on a global or regional basis
  • Article 198. Notification of imminent or actual damage
  • Article 199. Contingency plans against pollution
  • Article 200. Studies, research programmes and exchange of information and data
  • Article 201. Scientific criteria for regulations

SECTION 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

  • Article 202. Scientific and technical assistance to developing States
  • Article 203. Preferential treatment for developing States

SECTION 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

·  Article 204. Monitoring of the risks or effects of pollution

·  Article 205. Publication of reports

·  Article 206. Assessment of potential effects of activities

SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

·  Article 207. Pollution from land-based sources

·  Article 208. Pollution from seabed activities subject to national jurisdiction

·  Article 209. Pollution from activities in the Area

·  Article 210. Pollution by dumping

·  Article 211. Pollution from vessels

·  Article 212. Pollution from or through the atmosphere

SECTION 6. ENFORCEMENT

·  Article 213. Enforcement with respect to pollution from land-based sources

·  Article 214. Enforcement with respect to pollution from seabed activities

·  Article 215. Enforcement with respect to pollution from activities in the Area

·  Article 216. Enforcement with respect to pollution by dumping

·  Article 217. Enforcement by flag States

·  Article 218. Enforcement by port States

·  Article 219. Measures relating to seaworthiness of vessels to avoid pollution

·  Article 220. Enforcement by coastal States

·  Article 221. Measures to avoid pollution arising from maritime casualties

·  Article 222. Enforcement with respect to pollution from or through the atmosphere

SECTION 7. SAFEGUARDS

·  Article 223. Measures to facilitate proceedings

·  Article 224. Exercise of powers of enforcement

·  Article 225. Duty to avoid adverse consequences in the exercise of the powers of enforcement.

·  Article 226. Investigation of foreign vessels

·  Article 227. Non-discrimination with respect to foreign vessels

·  Article 228. Suspension and restrictions on institution of proceedings

·  Article 229. Institution of civil proceedings

·  Article 230. Monetary penalties and the observance of recognized rights of the accused

·  Article 231. Notification to the flag State and other States concerned

·  Article 232. Liability of States arising from enforcement measures

·  Article 233. Safeguards with respect to straits used for international navigation

SECTION 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS

·  Article 234. Ice-covered areas

SECTION 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

·  Article 235. Responsibility and liability

SECTION 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY

·  Article 236. Sovereign immunity

SECTION 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

·  Article 237. Obligations under other conventions on the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

 

PART XIII. MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·  Article 238. Right to conduct marine scientific research

·  Article 239. Promotion of marine scientific research

·  Article 240. General principles for the conduct of marine scientific research

·  Article 241. Non-recognition of marine scientific research activities as the legal basis for claims

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

·  Article 242. Promotion of international cooperation

·  Article 243. Creation of favourable conditions

·  Article 244. Publication and dissemination of information and knowledge

SECTION 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

·  Article 245. Marine scientific research in the territorial sea

·  Article 246. Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf

·  Article 247. Marine scientific research projects undertaken by or under the auspices of international organizations

·  Article 248. Duty to provide information to the coastal State

·  Article 249. Duty to comply with certain conditions

·  Article 250. Communications concerning marine scientific research projects

·  Article 251. General criteria and guidelines

·  Article 252. Implied consent

·  Article 253. Suspension or cessation of marine scientific research activities

·  Article 254. Rights of neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States

·  Article 255. Measures to facilitate marine scientific research and assist research vessels

·  Article 256. Marine scientific research in the Area

·  Article 257. Marine scientific research in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone

SECTION 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

·  Article 258. Deployment and use

·  Article 259. Legal status

·  Article 260. Safety zones

·  Article 261. Non-interference with shipping routes

·  Article 262. Identification markings and warning signals

SECTION 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

·  Article 263. Responsibility and liability

SECTION 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES

·  Article 264. Settlement of disputes

·  Article 265. Interim measures

 

PART XIV. DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·  Article 266. Promotion of the development and transfer of marine technology

·  Article 267. Protection of legitimate interests

·  Article 268. Basic objectives

·  Article 269. Measures to achieve the basic objectives

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

·  Article 270. Ways and means of international cooperation

·  Article 271. Guidelines, criteria and standards

·  Article 272. Coordination of international programmes

·  Article 273. Cooperation with international organizations and the Authority

·  Article 274. Objectives of the Authority

SECTION 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES

  • Article 275. Establishment of national centres.
  • Article 276. Establishment of regional centres
  • Article 277. Functions of regional centres

SECTION 4. COOPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

·  Article 278. Cooperation among international organizations

 

PART XV. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

·  Article 279. Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

·  Article 280. Settlement of disputes by any peaceful means chosen by the parties

·  Article 281. Procedure where no settlement has been reached by the parties

·  Article 282. Obligations under general, regional or bilateral agreements

·  Article 283. Obligation to exchange views

·  Article 284. Conciliation

·  Article 285. Application of this section to disputes submitted pursuant to Part XI

SECTION 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS

·  Article 286. Application of procedures under this section

·  Article 287. Choice of procedure

·  Article 288. Jurisdiction

·  Article 289. Experts

·  Article 290. Provisional measures

·  Article 291. Access

·  Article 292. Prompt release of vessels and crews

·  Article 293. Applicable law

·  Article 294. Preliminary proceedings

·  Article 295. Exhaustion of local remedies

·  Article 296. Finality and binding force of decisions

SECTION 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2

·  Article 297. Limitations on applicability of section 2

·  Article 298. Optional exceptions to applicability of section 2

·  Article 299. Right of the parties to agree upon a procedure

 

PART XVI. GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

  • Article 300. Good faith and abuse of rights
  • Article 301. Peaceful uses of the seas
  • Article 302. Disclosure of information
  • Article 303. Archaeological and historical objects found at sea
  • Article 304. Responsibility and liability for damage

 

PART XVII. FINAL PROVISIONS

 

  • Article 305. Signature
  • Article 306. Ratification and formal confirmation
  • Article 307. Accession
  • Article 308. Entry into force
  • Article 309. Reservations and exceptions
  • Article 310. Declarations and statements
  • Article 311. Relation to other conventions and international agreements
  • Article 312. Amendment
  • Article 313. Amendment by simplified procedure
  • Article 314. Amendments to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area
  • Article 315. Signature, ratification of, accession to and authentic texts of amendments
  • Article 316. Entry into force of amendments
  • Article 317. Denunciation
  • Article 318. Status of Annexes
  • Article 319. Depositary
  • Article 320. Authentic texts

 

Annexes to the Convention

 

ANNEX I. HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES

 

ANNEX II. COMMISSION ON THE LIMITS OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF

 

ANNEX III. BASIC CONDITIONS OF PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

 

  • Article 1. Title to minerals
  • Article 2. Prospecting
  • Article 3. Exploration and exploitation
  • Article 4. Qualifications of applicants
  • Article 5. Transfer of technology
  • Article 6. Approval of plans of work
  • Article 7. Selection among applicants for production authorizations
  • Article 8. Reservation of areas
  • Article 9. Activities in reserved areas
  • Article 10. Preference and priority among applicants
  • Article 11. Joint arrangements
  • Article 12. Activities carried out by the Enterprise
  • Article 13. Financial terms of contracts
  • Article 14. Transfer of data
  • Article 15. Training programmes
  • Article 16. Exclusive right to explore and exploit
  • Article 17. Rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority
  • Article 18. Penalties
  • Article 19. Revision of contract
  • Article 20. Transfer of rights and obligations
  • Article 21. Applicable law
  • Article 22. Responsibility

ANNEX IV. STATUTE OF THE ENTERPRISE

 

  • Article 1. Purposes
  • Article 2. Relationship to the Authority
  • Article 3. Limitation of liability
  • Article 4. Structure
  • Article 5. Governing Board
  • Article 6. Powers and functions of the Governing Board
  • Article 7. Director-General and staff of the Enterprise
  • Article 8. Location
  • Article 9. Reports and financial statements
  • Article 10. Allocation of net income
  • Article 11. Finances
  • Article 12. Operations
  • Article 13. Legal status, privileges and immunities

 

ANNEX V. CONCILIATION

 

SECTION 1. CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 1 OF PART XV

·  Article 1. Institution of proceedings

·  Article 2. List of conciliators

·  Article 3. Constitution of conciliation commission

·  Article 4. Procedure

·  Article 5. Amicable settlement

·  Article 6. Functions of the commission

·  Article 7. Report

·  Article 8. Termination

·  Article 9. Fees and expenses

·  Article 10. Right of parties to modify procedure

SECTION 2. COMPULSORY SUBMISSION TO CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 3 OF PART XV

·  Article 11. Institution of proceedings

·  Article 12. Failure to reply or to submit to conciliation

·  Article 13. Competence

·  Article 14. Application of section 1

 

ANNEX VI. STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

 

·  Article 1. General provisions

SECTION 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIBUNAL

·  Article 2. Composition

·  Article 3. Membership

·  Article 4. Nominations and elections

·  Article 5. Term of office

·  Article 6. Vacancies

·  Article 7. Incompatible activities

·  Article 8. Conditions relating to participation of members in a particular case

·  Article 9. Consequence of ceasing to fulfil required conditions

·  Article 10. Privileges and immunities

·  Article 11. Solemn declaration by members

·  Article 12. President, Vice-President and Registrar

·  Article 13. Quorum

·  Article 14. Seabed Disputes Chamber

·  Article 15. Special chambers

·  Article 16. Rules of the Tribunal

·  Article 17. Nationality of members

·  Article 18. Remuneration of members

·  Article 19. Expenses of the Tribunal

SECTION 2. COMPETENCE

·  Article 20. Access to the Tribunal

·  Article 21. Jurisdiction

·  Article 22 Reference of disputes subject to other agreements

·  Article 23. Applicable law

SECTION 3. PROCEDURE

·  Article 24. Institution of proceedings

·  Article 25. Provisional measures

·  Article 26. Hearing

·  Article 27. Conduct of case

·  Article 28. Default

·  Article 29. Majority for decision

·  Article 30. Judgment

·  Article 31. Request to intervene

·  Article 32 Right to intervene in cases of interpretation or application

·  Article 33. Finality and binding force of decisions

·  Article 34. Costs

SECTION 4. SEABED DISPUTES CHAMBER

·  Article 35. Composition

·  Article 36. Ad hoc chambers

·  Article 37. Access

·  Article 38. Applicable law

·  Article 39. Enforcement of decisions of the Chamber

·  Article 40. Applicability of other sections of this Annex

SECTION 5. AMENDMENTS

·  Article 41. Amendments

 

ANNEX VII. ARBITRATION

 

 

  • Article 1. Institution of proceedings
  • Article 2. List of arbitrators
  • Article 3. Constitution of arbitral tribunal
  • Article 4. Functions of arbitral tribunal
  • Article 5. Procedure
  • Article 6. Duties of parties to a dispute
  • Article 7. Expenses
  • Article 8. Required majority for decisions
  • Article 9. Default of appearance
  • Article 10. Award
  • Article 11. Finality of award
  • Article 12. Interpretation or implementation of award
  • Article 13. Application to entities other than States Parties

 

ANNEX VIII. SPECIAL ARBITRATION

 

  • Article 1. Institution of proceedings
  • Article 2. Lists of experts
  • Article 3. Constitution of special arbitral tribunal
  • Article 4. General provisions
  • Article 5. Fact finding

 

ANNEX IX. PARTICIPATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

 

  • Article 1. Use of terms
  • Article 2. Signature
  • Article 3. Formal confirmation and accession
  • Article 4. Extent of participation and rights and obligations
  • Article 5. Declarations, notifications and communications
  • Article 6. Responsibility and liability
  • Article 7. Settlement of disputes
  • Article 8. Applicability of Part XVII


 

PREAMBLE


The States Parties to this Convention,

Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,

Conscious that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,

Recognizing the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

Bearing in mind that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,

Desiring by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter alia that the area of the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,

Believing that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, cooperation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,

Affirming that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,

Have agreed as follows:


 

PART I

INTRODUCTION


Article 1

Use of terms and scope

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

(1) "Area" means the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;

(2) "Authority" means the International Seabed Authority;

(3) "activities in the Area" means all activities of exploration for, and exploitation of, the resources of the Area;

(4) "pollution of the marine environment" means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities;

(5) (a) "dumping" means:

(i) any deliberate disposal of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea;

(ii) any deliberate disposal of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea;

(b) "dumping" does not include:

(i) the disposal of wastes or other matter incidental to, or derived from the normal operations of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea and their equipment, other than wastes or other matter transported by or to vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, operating for the purpose of disposal of such matter or derived from the treatment of such wastes or other matter on such vessels, aircraft, platforms or structures;

(ii) placement of matter for a purpose other than the mere disposal thereof, provided that such placement is not contrary to the aims of this Convention.

2. (1) "States Parties" means States which have consented to be bound by this Convention and for which this Convention is in force.

(2) This Convention applies mutatis mutandis to the entities referred to in article 305, paragraph l(b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), which become Parties to this Convention in accordance with the conditions relevant to each, and to that extent "States Parties" refers to those entities.

 


 

PART II

TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE


SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article2

Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space

over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil.

3. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law.

SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article3

Breadth of the territorial sea

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.

Article4

Outer limit of the territorial sea

The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea.

Article5

Normal baseline

Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article6

Reefs

In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article7

Straight baselines

1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

2. Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.

3. The drawing of straight baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters.

4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

5. Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by long usage.

6. The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another State from the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article8

Internal waters

1. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

2. Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.

Article9

Mouths of rivers

If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.

Article10

Bays

1. This article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

3. For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semi-circle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water area of the indentation.

4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.

5. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

6. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called "historic" bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied.

Article11

Ports

For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Article12

Roadsteads

Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

Article13

Low-tide elevations

1. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.

2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

Article14

Combination of methods for determining baselines

The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.

Article15

Delimitation of the territorial sea between States

with opposite or adjacent coasts

Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith.

Article16

Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, a list of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

Article17

Right of innocent passage

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Article18

Meaning of passage

1. Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of:

(a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead or port facility outside internal waters; or

(b) proceeding to or from internal waters or a call at such roadstead or port facility.

2. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.

Article19

Meaning of innocent passage

1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.

2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:

(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;

(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;

(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State;

(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;

(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;

(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;

(i) any fishing activities;

(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;

(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;

(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Article20

Submarines and other underwater vehicles

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.

Article21

Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage

1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic;

(b) the protection of navigational aids and facilities and other facilities or installations;

(c) the protection of cables and pipelines;

(d) the conservation of the living resources of the sea;

(e) the prevention of infringement of the fisheries laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(f) the preservation of the environment of the coastal State and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution thereof;

(g) marine scientific research and hydrographic surveys;

(h) the prevention of infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships unless they are giving effect to generally accepted international rules or standards.

3. The coastal State shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea shall comply with all such laws and regulations and all generally accepted international regulations relating to the prevention of collisions at sea.

Article22

Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in the territorial sea

1. The coastal State may, where necessary having regard to the safety of navigation, require foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through its territorial sea to use such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as it may designate or prescribe for the regulation of the passage of ships.

2. In particular, tankers, nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials may be required to confine their passage to such sea lanes.

3. In the designation of sea lanes and the prescription of traffic separation schemes under this article, the coastal State shall take into account:

(a) the recommendations of the competent international organization;

(b) any channels customarily used for international navigation;

(c) the special characteristics of particular ships and channels; and

(d) the density of traffic.

4. The coastal State shall clearly indicate such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

Article23

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear

or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances shall, when exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea, carry documents and observe special precautionary measures established for such ships by international agreements.

Article24

Duties of the coastal State

1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:

(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or

(b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.

2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.

Article25

Rights of protection of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.

2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.

3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article26

Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

1. No charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage through the territorial sea.

2. Charges may be levied upon a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea as payment only for specific services rendered to the ship. These charges shall be levied without discrimination.

SUBSECTION B. RULES APPLICABLE TO

MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS

OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article27

Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

1. The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal State should not be exercised on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed on board the ship during its passage, save only in the following cases:

(a) if the consequences of the crime extend to the coastal State;

(b) if the crime is of a kind to disturb the peace of the country or the good order of the territorial sea;

(c) if the assistance of the local authorities has been requested by the master of the ship or by a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State; or

(d) if such measures are necessary for the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.

2. The above provisions do not affect the right of the coastal State to take any steps authorized by its laws for the purpose of an arrest or investigation on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

3. In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2, the coastal State shall, if the master so requests, notify a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such agent or officer and the ship's crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be communicated while the measures are being taken.

4. In considering whether or in what manner an arrest should be made, the local authorities shall have due regard to the interests of navigation.

5. Except as provided in Part XII or with respect to violations of laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Part V, the coastal State may not take any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering internal waters.

Article28

Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

1. The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on board the ship.

2. The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State.

3. Paragraph 2 is without prejudice to the right of the coastal State, in accordance with its laws, to levy execution against or to arrest, for the purpose of any civil proceedings, a foreign ship lying in the territorial sea, or passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

SUBSECTION C. RULES APPLICABLE TO

WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS

OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article29

Definition of warships

For the purposes of this Convention, "warship" means a ship belonging to the armed forces of a State bearing the external marks distinguishing such ships of its nationality, under the command of an officer duly commissioned by the government of the State and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent, and manned by a crew which is under regular armed forces discipline.

Article30

Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations

of the coastal State

If any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it to leave the territorial sea immediately.

Article31

Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship

or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes

The flag State shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage to the coastal State resulting from the non-compliance by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea or with the provisions of this Convention or other rules of international law.

Article32

Immunities of warships and other government ships

operated for non-commercial purposes

With such exceptions as are contained in subsection A and in articles 30 and 31, nothing in this Convention affects the immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes.

SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Article33

Contiguous zone

1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:

(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;

(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.

2. The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.


 

PART III

STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION


SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article34

Legal status of waters forming straits used for international navigation

1. The regime of passage through straits used for international navigation established in this Part shall not in other respects affect the legal status of the waters forming such straits or the exercise by the States bordering the straits of their sovereignty or jurisdiction over such waters and their air space, bed and subsoil.

2. The sovereignty or jurisdiction of the States bordering the straits is exercised subject to this Part and to other rules of international law.

Article35

Scope of this Part

Nothing in this Part affects:

(a) any areas of internal waters within a strait, except where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such;

(b) the legal status of the waters beyond the territorial seas of States bordering straits as exclusive economic zones or high seas; or

(c) the legal regime in straits in which passage is regulated in whole or in part by long-standing international conventions in force specifically relating to such straits.

Article36

High seas routes or routes through exclusive economic zones

through straits used for international navigation

This Part does not apply to a strait used for international navigation if there exists through the strait a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics; in such routes, the other relevant Parts of this Convention, including the provisions regarding the freedoms of navigation and overflight, apply.

SECTION 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

Article37

Scope of this section

This section applies to straits which are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article38

Right of transit passage

1. In straits referred to in article 37, all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of transit passage, which shall not be impeded; except that, if the strait is formed by an island of a State bordering the strait and its mainland, transit passage shall not apply if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.

2. Transit passage means the exercise in accordance with this Part of the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the strait between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. However, the requirement of continuous and expeditious transit does not preclude passage through the strait for the purpose of entering, leaving or returning from a State bordering the strait, subject to the conditions of entry to that State.

3. Any activity which is not an exercise of the right of transit passage through a strait remains subject to the other applicable provisions of this Convention.

Article39

Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage

1. Ships and aircraft, while exercising the right of transit passage, shall:

(a) proceed without delay through or over the strait;

(b) refrain from any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of States bordering the strait, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) refrain from any activities other than those incident to their normal modes of continuous and expeditious transit unless rendered necessary by force majeure or by distress;

(d) comply with other relevant provisions of this Part.

2. Ships in transit passage shall:

(a) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for safety at sea, including the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea;

(b) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

3. Aircraft in transit passage shall:

(a) observe the Rules of the Air established by the International Civil Aviation Organization as they apply to civil aircraft; state aircraft will normally comply with such safety measures and will at all times operate with due regard for the safety of navigation;

(b) at all times monitor the radio frequency assigned by the competent internationally designated air traffic control authority or the appropriate international distress radio frequency.

Article40

Research and survey activities

During transit passage, foreign ships, including marine scientific research and hydrographic survey ships, may not carry out any research or survey activities without the prior authorization of the States bordering straits.

Article41

Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in straits

used for international navigation

1. In conformity with this Part, States bordering straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation in straits where necessary to promote the safe passage of ships.

2. Such States may, when circumstances require, and after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by them.

3. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.

4. Before designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, States bordering straits shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the States bordering the straits, after which the States may designate, prescribe or substitute them.

5. In respect of a strait where sea lanes or traffic separation schemes through the waters of two or more States bordering the strait are being proposed, the States concerned shall cooperate in formulating proposals in consultation with the competent international organization.

6. States bordering straits shall clearly indicate all sea lanes and traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by them on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

7. Ships in transit passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

Article42

Laws and regulations of States bordering straits

relating to transit passage

1. Subject to the provisions of this section, States bordering straits may adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage through straits, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic, as provided in article 41;

(b) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution, by giving effect to applicable international regulations regarding the discharge of oil, oily wastes and other noxious substances in the strait;

(c) with respect to fishing vessels, the prevention of fishing, including the stowage of fishing gear;

(d) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person in contravention of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of States bordering straits.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not discriminate in form or in fact among foreign ships or in their application have the practical effect of denying, hampering or impairing the right of transit passage as defined in this section.

3. States bordering straits shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of transit passage shall comply with such laws and regulations.

5. The flag State of a ship or the State of registry of an aircraft entitled to sovereign immunity which acts in a manner contrary to such laws and regulations or other provisions of this Part shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage which results to States bordering straits.

Article43

Navigational and safety aids and other improvements

and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution

User States and States bordering a strait should by agreement cooperate:

(a) in the establishment and maintenance in a strait of necessary navigational and safety aids or other improvements in aid of international navigation; and

(b) for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

Article44

Duties of States bordering straits

States bordering straits shall not hamper transit passage and shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation or overflight within or over the strait of which they have knowledge. There shall be no suspension of transit passage.

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

Article45

Innocent passage

1. The regime of innocent passage, in accordance with Part II, section 3, shall apply in straits used for international navigation:

(a) excluded from the application of the regime of transit passage under article 38, paragraph 1; or

(b) between a part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and the territorial sea of a foreign State.

2. There shall be no suspension of innocent passage through such straits


 

PART IV

ARCHIPELAGIC STATES


MISSION
"To assert and enforce national jurisdiction and sovereignty in all Maritime zones and to protect
Pakistan's Maritime interests."